Health Care in America

51. What financial benefit does a small rural hospital reap by qualifying for the designation, Critical Access Hospital? It can receive specific federal grants for serving vulnerable populations It can use its beds for either acute care or long-term care as needed It can increase its profitability by receiving special payments for emergency services It can receive cost-plus reimbursement under Medicare Part A 52. Which principle of ethics requires caregivers to involve the patient in medical decision making? Paternalism Fidelity Beneficence Autonomy 53. What is the main drawback of a living will? It cannot cover all possible situations The patient’s agent may not act in the patient’s best interest The person formulating a living will must have a court appointed guardian It becomes invalid when the patient becomes incompetent 54. To participate in Medicare and Medicaid, a health care facility must be conditioned accredited certified licensed 55. Which entity oversees the licensure of health care facilities? The Joint Commission Federal government State government Local county or city government56. Institutional theory predicts that for-profit and nonprofit organizations will imitate each other when faced with similar regulatory and legal constraints as an enterprise increases in size, its unit overhead costs would decrease as a hospital increases in size, its economies of scale dissipate in competitive markets, both for-profit and nonprofit organizations would deliver certain essential community benefits 57. Under this method, a primary care physician decides whether or not to refer a patient to a specialist. Preauthorization Prospective uti I ization review Disease management Closed-panel utiIization 58. When an MCO adopts capitation as the primary method of payment, which service is likely to be carved out? Surgery Gatekeeping Mental health Primary care 59. Which HMO model is likely to require heavy capital outlays to expand into new markets? Staff model Group model Network model IPA model 60. PPOs were created by __ in response to HMOs’ growing market share. physicians insurance companies hospitals independent contractors61. Which of these organizations was specifically created to bring management expertise to physician group practices? Virtual organizations Physician-hospital organizations Provider-sponsored organizations Management services organizations 62. Where two organizations cease to exist, and a new corporation is formed: Acquisition Merger Joint venture Alliance 63. Regional health systems are often: horizontally integrated vertically integrated formed into virtual organizations formed into alliances 64. requires that any health care need is recognized, evaluated, and addressed. long-term care health care individual care total care 65. What is the primary goal of long-term care? help patients with increased pain cure deadly diseases preventing institutionalization providing socialization66. This type of clinical category for long-term care is non-medical care provided to support and requires no active medical treatments. personal care nursing care custodial care subacute care 67. What is the most common cause of mental retardation in America? Down’s syndrome autism spina bifida epilepsy 68. The prevalence of HIV in the population has: increased decreased stayed the same none of the above 69. Which law created two categories for nursing home certification purposes? Nursing Home Reform Act Medical Advancement Act Nursing Home Alternatives Act None of the above 70. Who is the primary payer for health care services for the elderly? Medicaid Medicare private insurance none of the above 71. What was the sixth leading cause of death for Hispanic males in 2003? heart disease malnutrition diabetes homicide72. What factor has been found to be associated with the highest injury-related mortality rate among Indian children? cultural prenatal care social poverty 73. Most medically uninsured adults are employed but are not covered because: their employer does not offer health benefits they do not work enough hours to qualify for health benefits they cannot afford the premium all of the above. 74. Education and psychotherapy for children with HIV is an example of: heatlh-related support services population-based community health services personal medical and preventive services none of the above 75. Who is the principal user of the health care system? men children elderly women 76. What is defined as a “high-impact” area? areas with over 3,000 rural health clinics areas that serve at least 4,000 migrant workers for at least two months per year. areas that serve at least 12,000 community members per year none of the above.77. Which type of patient is most likely to experience disability and more severe medical illnesses? diabetic cancer depressed elderly 78. All of the following are factors effecting the growth in health spending EXCEPT: uninsured patients hospital services prescription drugs physician services 79. What is partly responsible for the surplus of specialists in the US? greater access to financial aid technology increased population none of the above 80. Defensive medicine leads to: decreased cesarean sections legal risks unnecessary tests and services none of the above 8l. What was the most sweeping price-control initiative for Medicare? Economic Stabilization Program Balanced Budget Act Omnibus Budge Reconciliation none of the above82. What is NOT an implication for access to health and health care delivery? access to medical care is one of the key determinants of health measures of access reflect changes across the board access is increasingly linked to quality of care access is a significant benchmark in assessing effectiveness 83. Which main type of access refers to the type, site, and purpose of health services? potential realized equitable inequitable 84. What do proponents believe regarding clinical practice guidelines? it reduces utilization decreases scientific research it promotes lower costs and better outcomes increases technology 85. When public policy pertains to or influences the pursuit of health they become: health policy population policy prevention policy none of the above 86. A problem associated with government involvement in US Health Is: escalating costs bureaucratic inflexibility excessive regulation all of the above87. An insurance risk pool: helps people acquire private insurance otherwise unavailable helps insurance companies decrease their costs helps employers obtain insurance for their employees none of the above 88. All BUT which of the following presidents is mentioned in the text as contributing major changes in health policies: President Lyndon Johnson President John Kennedy President Harry Truman President Bill Clinton 89. Which branch of government is the most active in policymaking? executive judicial legislative none of the above 90. Which group have policies been created to provide access to health care? elderly poor children poor adults all of the above 9l. What is the third main concern of health care policy? cost research qualify of care technology 92. The majority of employers currently offer: long-term plan defined benefit plan deductible health plan none of the above93. The greatest challenge in insurance is: maintaining a balance between healthy and sick enrollees maintaining a balance between young and elder enrollees maintaining a balance between premium and nonpremium enrollees none of the above 94. What is a disadvantage of managed competition? the medical infrastructure fluctuates increased government bureaucracy it cannot guarantee that everyone would have equal access to care all of the above 95. Infectious diseases and health care must be viewed from a perspective. cost cultural global multi-faceted 96. What is a strategy used to deal with nurse shortages? investments in training improvement in work environments opening new schools all of the above 97. What approach will be used in order to improve quality and productivity? collaborative team approach collaboration cross-training all of the above98. What is the goal of evidence-based medicine? increase the amount of patients increase the availabilty of prescription medicine increase the value of medicine none of the above 99. What type of integration is represented by a chain of nursing homes? Ve integration Network Horizontal integration Diversification 100. Where a new corporation created by two partnering organizations remains independent: Acquisition Merger Joint venture Alliance

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