Methods Paper :

Methods Paper :March 3, 2020/in Uncategorized /by adminIdentify a data source: you may use the following websites to access a data sets for your research proposal:-The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES),-the California Health Interview Survey data,-Health, Information National Trends Survey data or-the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey Emergency Department data.*If a student is using other sources of data, then you don’t have to access a public data file. Professional Seminar HSA 6930 // Advanced Research Seminar 6717 OverviewWEEK 1-2: Topic Selectiono Students enrolled in the Professional Seminar HSA 6930 who are interested in research, discussa research topic with the course instructor.o Meet the course instructor to discuss potential topics (within the first three weeks).o Search the literature to narrow down a topic of interest.o Develop and annotated bibliography.o Select a feasible research topic within the first three (3) weeks.Note: Students who do not meet the topic selection deadline, will be offered the opportunity to registerin the Administrative Residency HSA 6875.WEEK 3-7: Develop Research Question and Purpose of Studyo Meet with course instructor to discuss the research progress and proposed topic.o Discuss a research proposal structure / plano Develop a research questiono Develop Introduction/Background, Statement of Problem, Purpose, and Significance ofResearchWEEK 8-11o Start the Literature Review: Continue to research and annotate sourceso Start the methods sectionWEEK 12-14o Turn in a comprehensive research proposal including a list of references4Advanced Health Services Management and Research SeminarHSA 6717 OverviewWEEK 1-2: Choose and/ or revise the Methodso Choose an appropriate method and outline a design approacho Discuss the feasibility of the research methodologyNote: The Masters Research project is descriptive in nature. If the student has a preference on aspecific research design, the student must consult the course instructor for approval.WEEK 3-7o Discuss the research data analysis plan with the course instructoro Write the research methods (i.e. participants, research design, procedures and data analysisproposal)o Finalize your methodologyWEEK 8-11o Data collectiono Start to analyze datao Meet with your course instructor to discuss preliminary data analysiso Finalize data analysisWEEK 12-14o Meet with course instructor to discuss the research results and next stepso Write the resultso Discussion, recommendations, conclusions and limitationso Turn in final research paper5Organization of the Research ProposalThe research proposal allows the student to write a formal written plan put forward forconsideration in the Professional Seminar.When the student is writing the research proposal it is written in the future tense, since theresearch has not been conducted.Example: ‘This research will explore…’Title PageThe title page should include several sections: Project title, name, name of the institution nameof the course instructor and date the proposal is submitted. Do not include a running head on the titlepage.The title should be brief yet informative, providing the reader with a description of theproposed topic of the research study. The title should reflect the identification of the problem theresearch assesses.Introduction/BackgroundThe first section must capture the reader’s interest, provide a rationale for the study as a whole andinform the reader about the research content and scope.First, explain the research background starting from a broad perspective (e.g. what is known aboutthe problem globally? What is the prevalence of the problem nationwide? Second, describe the problemat the local/state level.) Third, describe what is already known about the research topic.This section includes relevant references to support the statements part of the background. Thereferences should be from reliable sources of information and these should be accurate. References canbe found in peer reviewed literature (i.e. scholarly journals), books, and other reliable sources.Statement of ProblemThe statement of problem lays the foundation for the issues being explored in the research project.This section details why the problem requires research. The statement of problem section usually startsby addressing why the student is pursuing this research topic. Is it serious enough to warrant the study?Next, place the problem and research question in perspective, develop a narrative on the demographics(introducing the population of interest), and location of the problem (setting/geographical location) orsituation leading to the applied research. It is essential to provide compelling evidence the problemexists. This section should also be supported by evidence based references / citations. Cite relevantliterature to support the topic of interest and the variables of study.Significance of the Study6This section narrates why the proposed research study is relevant or meaningful and why thestudy might be necessary. The use of literature is highly recommended to describe the gaps in thepublished literature, insufficient knowledge in the subject area, or the need to validate the findings ofprevious studies. Explain what is the benefit or contribution to new knowledge.Example: “This research is important to understand barriers to access health care services forSouth Florida residents with cardiovascular diseases. This study is relevant to better understandwhat the specific barriers are so that intervention tailored to this population are implemented.”Qualitative studies are exploratory in nature. An example of a qualitative research is: Interviews ofclinical practitioners about the types of policies on a specific health program or available therapies totreat a disease. This type of research is recommended when a researcher wants to understand thepopulation or area of interest from a behavioral or analytical perspective. Interpretations of the answersare required.In qualitative studies there is a guide of topics/themes. Through this design there is some flexibility toexplore the participant’s responses through a structured interview process.If a student decides to use a qualitative study as the design of their research, he/she shows the studyfindings’ using the research participants’ direct narrative quotes that should support the studyconclusions.Qualitative research question example: “What are the relevant barriers for access to healthcare arefor South Florida residents with cardiovascular diseases.”Quantitative ResearchQuantitative studies use a structured variable-specific survey questionnaire or secondary datacollection. When using this type of research design, the student uses a representative sample of thepopulation of interest. The student should be cautious about the type of questions when usingquestionnaires and should consult with the course instructor if they are planning to use surveys to collectdata. The survey question (s) should follow the research question objectives.In these types of studies, the student should be able to speak about the data that supports theconclusions. In quantitative research it is not be possible to subjectively interpret any results as in thecase of qualitative research.Quantitative research question example: “What are the most prevalent barriers to access healthcare services identified by South Florida residents with cardiovascular diseases?”7Literature ReviewThe purpose of the literature review is to describe the related and existent evidence about the topic ofinterest. Creswell (2014) suggests that the literature review shares with the reader the results of previousstudies, related to the one being proposed/conducted.The literature review is a critical review and assessment of current as well as previous researchstudies or evidence in the field of study. This section compares and contrasts previous studies related tothe topic chosen, combining and summarizing related studies.The reader should be able to find a roadmap and a narrative describing many aspects of the literatureon what is known about the topic. Start by explaining the problem worldwide, nationwide, and explainthe varying results documented in the literature.Provide a logical structure to the reader guiding them through previous research studies and theoriessupporting the proposed research, establishing the importance of the topic.Be critical and consistent. Provide an assessment of the strengths and weaknesses of previous andcurrent studies.Cooper (2010) & Creswell (2014) recognized four aspects of literature reviews, described below:1) Integrate research / evidence that others have done or said2) Criticize scholarly work3) Build bridges between related topics4) Identify the principal issues in a fieldExample of a research question for the example below: “What are the barriers to accesshealth care services identified by South Florida residents with cardiovascular diseases?”Literature Example: “Access to health care seems to be improving in the United States(Clooney, 2017). However, some research has found significant increases in chronic diseases such ascardiovascular diseases in the state of Florida (Jones-Who, 2018). Therefore, more research is neededto understand barriers for access to health care services identified by South Florida residents withcardiovascular diseases, since the prevalence is rising. A recent study found positive effects on accessto health care and cardiovascular disease outcomes (Clooney & Comellas, 2018). Clooney andComellas (2018) argued there is an increasingly aging population in South Florida identifyingsignificant transportation barriers to access preventive care services.”According to Creswell (2014) (in quantitative research) the literature review starts with an (1)introduction section, followed by (2) topic 1 (the independent variable) (3) topic 2 (the dependent8variable) and (4) topic 3 (studies that address both the dependent and independent variable) and (5) asummary highlighting the most important studies (Creswell, 2014, p. 47).The literature review for a qualitative and quantitative study is written as part of the researchproposal.Note: Use current literature / evidence. Seek the input from your course instructor.Literature Review: Step by StepCreswell (2014) suggests several different ways to work on a literature review:1) Identify key words to locate different materials in a library. The key words may emerge fromthe literature and it may allow for the identification of a topic.2) Search journals, books, databases (e.g. FIU computer databases: ProQuest, EBSCO,PubMed, etc.).3) Gather as many reports as possible that are related to the research topic.4) Skim though the articles. Creswell (2014) suggests that throughout this process, it isimportant to try to gain a sense as to whether the research will make a useful contribution tothe understanding of the literature.5) Begin a literature map.a. This is a visual picture or groupings of the literature on the topic illustrating how thestudy will contribute to the literature.b. Position the study within the larger body of research.6) Begin to draft summaries of the most relevant articles. Start critiquing the previous literatureand point out deficiencies and issues with the methods.7) Assemble the literature review. Structure the literature thematically (use headings).The literature review conclusion should suggest how the proposed research may contribute to thecurrent literature and could address gaps in the current literature.9Research MethodsThis section provides a description about participant selection, the data collection the researchprocedures and data analysis.This section starts with a description of the study design (i.e. qualitative and/or quantitativedesign). The methods section includes the following:1. Introduction. This section includes a reiteration of the statement of problem and researchquestion.2. Participants. This section includes the study population and sample selection (quantitative) ora description of study participants (e.g. males and/or females, age range, ethnicity, or otherdemographical characteristics). Describe how the participants will be chosen (qualitative),recruitment procedures, the estimated number of participants, and reimbursement or monetarycompensations are given to participants (if any) should be specified.3. Procedures for data collection. This section includes detailed descriptions of procedures(quantitative or qualitative) used/to be used to collect the data. Anticipate how data will becollected. Explain why each procedure was chosen. It is also important to describe how theprocedure will address the research questions.4. Data Collection. In this course, data collection will be done mainly through secondary data(data collected by others, not the principal investigator). Provide a rationale for the procedures,using arguments based on its strengths and weaknesses, costs, data availability and/orconvenience.Qualitative ResearchWhen conducting qualitative research, the aim is to address people’s experiences, needs, anddifferent perspectives. Qualitative research aims at understanding and observing attitudes, lifecircumstances, beliefs, opinions, behaviors and a processes in depth.Data is collected by interviewing people and recording the responses as well as observing anddocumenting participant body language. The common approaches for facilitating interviews are:a. In-depth interviews: These are one on one interviews. Researchers are interested inunderstanding individual experiences or opinions.b. Focus groups interviews: The researcher attempts to discuss or explore participants’opinions in a group setting.c. Telephone mediated interviews: The researcher interviews participants by phone.d. Online mediated interviews: These are one on one interviews conducted online.e. Observation: This is an approach often used as a supplement to recording participant’sresponses.10Quantitative ResearchWhen conducting quantitative research, data is often gathered using surveys either in person orthrough the Internet. If the information is collected through a survey questionnaire it usually has threesections: (a) inclusion/exclusion criteria, (b) demographic information and (c) the questions assessing thestudy variable (s) of interest.Sample and PopulationQualitative ResearchIn qualitative research designs, the researcher purposely identifies the individuals (usually between5 to 10 study participants) for the proposed study (Creswell, 2014). He/she should have in mind theresearch problem and which population (s) are affected by the problem.This section of the paper describes the selection of study participants, explains the characteristicsof the participants and describes the proposed number of participants. It also includes the inclusion andthe exclusion criteria for including the research population.Quantitative ResearchAs is the case with qualitative research designs, this section describes the selection of participants(e.g. data), explaining the demographic characteristics and describing the proposed number in thesample being studied. It also includes the inclusion and the exclusion criteria for selecting the researchsample. Sample sizes may vary based upon the research aim/question (s). Large sample sizes (e.g. ≥100), often leads to increased accuracy in estimates about the population.Note: Students are encouraged to ask their course instructor for recommendations on sample sizes.Data CollectionQualitative ResearchIt is common to develop structured and semi structured questions and record each participant’sresponses. The interview research question should map to the main research question.When conducting qualitative research, an interview/discussion guide is developed to conduct theinterviews. These questions address the main research problem. Other data collected during theinterviews could include participant demographics (e.g. age, sex, race/ethnicity, income for descriptivestatistics).Note: The student interviewer informs the research participant the location, day and time of theinterview. The interviewer ensures the participants have the interviewer contact information incase they get lost, are delayed, or have other problems prior to the interview.During and prior to the interview:11a) Provide an informed consent form indicating the research is voluntaryb) Remind the research participants that they will be recordedc) Remind the research participants that there are no right or wrong answers during theinterview session (promote open and honest communication)d) State name and the goal of meeting with the participantse) Ask each participant to introduce themselves, state their names or initials so that you canlater distinguish each participant responsesf) Do not redirect or interpret the respondent answers, or judgeg) Know the interview guide and questionsh) Do not bring any knowledge to the tablei) Be comfortable with silenceNote: Use probes as needed. For example – be silent, repeat the statement they said and thencontinue neutrally (“I see, uh…”), direct (“Tell me more”), and clarify (what, where, when,what).Quantitative ResearchThis section describes how many questions are going to be used (even if it is secondary datacollection) and how the survey that led to the data collection was developed.Example: “The data used in this research is from the cardiovascular diseases questionnaire used inresearch conducted by the National Center for Health Statistics of the Centers for Disease Control andPrevention. This is a national cross-sectional research study representative of the U.S. population. Theinterviewers were elderly persons and minorities to provide a full representation of the U.S population.Note: If the student plans to use a survey or other form of data collection, consult the courseinstructor for guidance.ProceduresQualitative ResearchThis section describes the participant’s recruitment process as well as the methods used whileconducting the interviews (e.g., notes, audio tape recording, and video tape recording). Discuss how thegroup (if a focus group) will have a discussion in a quiet, comfortable place to ensure everyonespeaks/participate. Describe the development of a topic guide. A topic guide is used in the interviewprocess to guide and discuss key questions the interviewer would like to cover, including useful promptsto encourage discussion.Include an explanation about transcribing the interview once the participant’s interviews/discussionshave ended. After transcribing, the student reads the interviews (i.e. the data) and start coding it.Note: Coding is an approach used to organize the data by grouping pieces (categorizing thedata) and writing a word representing a category (Rossman & Rallis, 2012; Creswell,2014, p. 198). In qualitative research, data is primarily in the form of words derived fromthe participant’s expressions on a subject matter.12The data should be organized into categories of themes. Describe how the validity occurs in theresearch process to validate the findings of the proposed study.Describe one or more strategies for establishing the accurateness of the findings. Some of thecommonly used strategies are described below:a) Triangulation: Search for different data sources and use these to build the justification ofthemes (Creswell, 2014). If the researcher finds that the themes are established based onconverging several sources of data or participant perspectives, then this would add to thevalidity of the study.b) Member checking: Taking the emergent themes back to the participants and asking them ifthey feel the themes are correct.Note: To check the reliability, researchers may cross-check the results with an independentperson who can check the codes used by the researcher. Consult the course instructor formore information on this methods.Quantitative ResearchIn this section the student documents the participant’s recruitment process (e.g. consecutively, using asnowball approach, randomly, or other procedure that is free from bias). The student must alwaysprovide informed consent and specify the research is voluntary to all participants prior to starting the datacollection process. Therefore, the student must describe the informed consent process in the methodssection (if administering a survey).This section describes the processes used while collecting the research data. It documents all theprocesses for gathering data, selecting participants (or sites), providing copies of the consent form (ifapplicable).Describe the study variables, the parameters established for the variable (s) of study (e.g. optimalhealth risk scores are defined as ≥10”) and how these data collected was collected.13Data AnalysisQualitative ResearchThis section explains how the data analysis section would be organized. It also describes the dataanalysis plan, how to code (assign numbers to the verbal answers obtained from the participant).Describe the study variables and the specific statistics that will be used (e.g. counts, percentages, means)as applicable.Tips: Propose to use a software for data organization and management:a) Microsoft Excel can be used to organize the narrative data collected.b) For the demographical data (organize it in Microsoft Excel).c) If using Microsoft Excel, create headings in each column with the themes (type thequestions you asked in your interviews) for classifying themes and units of analysis.d) Quantify your themes and report its frequenciese) Always refer back to the research question, asking “Was the research questionanswered?”Quantitative ResearchThis section explains how the data analysis section is organized. Present the data analysis plan insequential order. The analysis plan should include: (1) Descriptive statistics of the data (e.g. frequenciesand percentages, the reporting average and counts).After discussing the descriptive statistics, describe how the variables will be measured on the surveyinstrument. How the data will be handled (e.g. continuously or categorically)? Discuss which of thequestions in the survey instrument answer the research question (s).Describe other statistical data plans on how to handle the data (e.g. missing variables, outliers,normality of the data).Explain that the results will be shown using tables, graphs, figures, or other form.This section ends with a discussion of the implications for practice of the study. Typically discussestheoretical and practical consequences once the study is completed. Get Your Custom Essay Written From Scratch We have worked on a similar problem. If you need help click order now button and submit your assignment instructions. Just from $13/Page Order Now